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33rd International Conference on Pediatrics, Neonatology and Pediatric Nursing, will be organized around the theme “”

PEDIATRIC CONGRESS 2024 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in PEDIATRIC CONGRESS 2024

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Diabetes mellitus, also known as just diabetes, is a metabolic condition that raises blood sugar levels. Insulin is a hormone that transports sugar from the blood into your cells where it can be stored or utilised as fuel. When you have diabetes, your body can't use the insulin it does make or doesn't produce enough of it.

Diabetes-related high blood sugar left untreated can harm your kidneys, nerves, eyes, and other organs. However, you can safeguard your health by learning about diabetes and taking measures to prevent or control it.

There are several varieties of diabetes:

Type 1: Diabetes type 1 is an autoimmune condition. The immune system targets and kills insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. Uncertainty surrounds the attack's origin.

Type 2: When your body gets resistant to insulin, type 2 diabetes develops and blood sugar levels rise. About 90% to 95%Trusted Source of people with diabetes have type 2, making it the most prevalent kind.

Diabetes gestational: Diabetes gestational is excessive blood sugar when pregnant. This form of diabetes is brought on by substances the placenta secretes that block insulin.

Type 1 diabetes in children is a condition in which your child's body no longer produces an important hormone (insulin). Your child needs insulin to survive, so the missing insulin needs to be replaced with injections or with an insulin pump. Type 1 diabetes in children used to be known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes. The diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in children can be overwhelming, especially in the beginning. Suddenly you and your child — depending on your child's age — must learn how to give injections, count carbohydrates and monitor blood sugar. There's no cure for type 1 diabetes in children, but it can be managed. Advances in blood sugar monitoring and insulin delivery have improved blood sugar management and quality of life for children with type 1 diabetes.

Newborn infants, more precisely those that are under four weeks old, are referred to as neonates. This is a highly vital stage in a baby's development because it's when things like eating routines are formed, when parent-child bonding starts, and most significantly, when the infant is most vulnerable to infections that could go serious. Congenital flaws or birth abnormalities are also noted at this stage.

As a neonate, the infant is going through a lot of changes as it learns to adapt to life outside of the womb. Its physiological systems, like the immune system and lungs, are still developing and require more protection from potential infection sources.

The preferred form of sustenance is breast milk. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) advises introducing appropriate solid food between the ages of 6 months and 1 year after a minimum of 6 months of exclusive breastfeeding. After a year, breastfeeding can continue for as long as the mother and baby want it to, but it should only be used as a supplement to a balanced diet that includes solid meals and fluids. Practitioners should start conversations about breastfeeding before conception, outlining the several benefits: Benefits for the child's diet and brain development as well as defence against infection, allergies, obesity, Crohn's disease, and diabetes. Reduced fertility during lactation; quicker recovery to prepartum health (e.g., weight loss); and protection from osteoporosis, obesity, ovarian cancer, and premenopausal breast cancer for the mother

The evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of congenital and acquired cardiovascular issues in foetuses, infants, children, adolescents, and young adults are the focus of the medical speciality known as paediatric cardiology.

Some children were born with structural cardiovascular differences. Some people may experience issues with the electrical system that regulates their heartbeat. Pediatric cardiologists have received specialised training to identify and treat each of these issues.

The area of dentistry that deals with children from infancy through puberty is known as paediatric dentistry.

Among some of the duties of a paediatric dentist are:

  • Identifying and treating oral diseases (preventive and restorative)

  • X-ray and other diagnostic test interpretation

  • Create treatment strategies to improve the dental health of paediatric patients, both those who are healthy and those who require particular medical attention.

  • Observe the expansion and development of each tooth and jaw.

Doctors that specialise in treating children's skin, hair, and nails are known as paediatric dermatologists. From infants to teenagers, they care for kids of all ages. From acne to skin cancer, they are able to identify and treat a wide range of illnesses.

Pediatric dermatologists are employed by hospitals or clinics. Children who have problems with their skin, hair, or nails are diagnosed and treated. Such actions include:

Treat skin diseases include vitiligo (loss of skin pigment), dermatitis, eczema, psoriasis, allergic responses, and others.

  • Get rid of any skin growths like moles, cysts, or warts.

  • Laser therapies

  • A skin biopsy

  • Skin cancer treatment

Pediatric endocrinology is a medical specialist that deals with endocrine gland diseases, including abnormalities in young children's physical growth and sexual development, diabetes, and many more.

Type1 diabetes is the most prevalent condition in the field, accounting for at least 50% of a normal clinical practise. Growth disorders, especially those that can be treated with growth hormones, are the second most frequent issue. The primary doctors that treat newborns and children with intersex problems are typically paediatric endocrinologists. The speciality also deals with puberty variations, hypoglycemia and other forms of hyperglycemia in childhood, as well as various issues involving the pituitary, thyroid, and adrenal glands.

Neonatal sepsis is an invasive infection that typically occurs during the neonatal era and is caused by bacteria. Reduced spontaneous activity, less vigorous sucking, apnea, bradycardia, temperature instability, respiratory distress, vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal distention, jitteriness, convulsions, and jaundice are a few of the numerous, nonspecific signs. Clinical findings are used to make the diagnosis. Ampicillin and either gentamicin or cefotaxime are used as the first line of treatment before being quickly narrowed down to medications that are specific to the organism.

Neonatal sepsis occurs in 0.5 to 8.0/1000 births. The highest rates occur in

  • infants with low Apgar scores at birth, indicating decreased function,

  • infants with prenatal risk factors in their mothers (eg, low socioeconomic status, premature rupture of membranes)

  • Minorities

  • Males

A doctor who specialises in the diagnosis and treatment of blood diseases and cancers in children, adolescents, and young adults is known as a paediatric haematologist.

Pediatric haematologists identify, manage, and treat the following conditions in young teenagers:

  • Leukemias, lymphomas, brain tumours, bone tumours, and solid tumours are among the cancers.

  • abnormalities of the white blood cell, red blood cell, and platelet populations

  • abnormalities of bleeding and clotting


A paediatric nephrologist is an expert in the medical requirements of newborns, kids, and teenagers with kidney abnormalities and diseases. Kidney issues in children, such as renal stones and kidney failure, are diagnosed and treated by paediatric nephrologists. They also aid in controlling kidney-related illnesses like diabetes and high blood pressure.

Typically, a paediatric nephrologist:

  • examines the medical background and renal function of a patient.

  • diagnoses and treatments diseases and ailments, such as diabetes and childhood nephrotic syndrome, that damage the kidneys in children.

  • examines the findings of screenings for kidney disease, such as urine, blood, and biopsy results

Asphyxia, is the lack of blood and oxygen reaching the brain. When a baby's brain and other organs do not receive enough oxygen and nutrients before, during, or immediately after birth, birth asphyxia occurs. No one can prevent this from occurring. Cells cannot function effectively without oxygen and nutrition. Acid wastes accumulate in the cells and harm them.

The amount of harm depends on:

  • How long your baby does not get enough oxygen

  • How low the level of oxygen is

  • How quickly the right treatment is given

The importance of immunizations for both world health and modern medicine cannot be overstated. Many vaccines are used in children's international immunisation programmes, however there may be subtle regional variations. For instance, compared to non-industrialized countries, the majority of industrialised countries prefer to adhere to comparable primary immunisation regimens. The difference in vaccination regimens per nation is also influenced by geography.

Pediatric Nursing is a specialization of the nursing profession that focuses on pediatrics and the medical care of children, from infancy to the teenage years. This is an important field because the health of children is distinct from that of adults due to the growth and development that occurs throughout childhood.

It's important to know that becoming certified as a paediatric nurse is not necessary in order to work as a child nurse. However, for nurses who are passionate about providing care for children, having specific knowledge and training helps to boost work prospects.

Neonatology refers to the medical treatment of newborn newborns, particularly those who are preterm or unwell. In neonatal critical care units, it's a common practise. Newborn children that require specific medical care owing to low birth weight, preterm, intrauterine growth retardation, congenital abnormalities, sepsis, pulmonary hypoplasia, or birth asphyxia are the most common patients of neonatologists. Perinatology is a branch of medicine concerned with the care of unborn children. The perinatal period begins in the 20th to 28th week of pregnancy and ends one to four weeks following birth. A perinatologist may safeguard a high-risk infant before birth, and a neonatologist may protect the newborn after birth.

Pediatrics aims to reduce baby and child mortality rates, restrict the spread of infectious disease, promote healthy lifestyles for a long, disease-free life, and assist children and adolescents with their issues. It is obvious that understanding the major and primary subject of General Pediatrics would help you achieve this. It covers the fundamental treatments for the growth of paediatric health. The most serious issues for newborns and children's overall health can be caused by dietary deficiencies, since shortages of important vitamins or nutrients can seriously impede growth and development.

  • Clinical Pediatric dentistry

  • Clinical Pediatric emergency medicine

  • Clinical pediatrics nursing

  • Clinical pediatrics neurology

  • Clinical pediatrics cardiology

  • Clinical pediatrics dermatology

  • Clinical pediatrics Care

  • Clinical pediatrics practices


Pediatric surgeons work with parents to assess, treat, and manage their children's surgical needs. Surgical correction of groyne anomalies in children and adolescents, including testis testes, hernias, hydroceles, and varicoceles. Birth defects are repaired surgically. Pediatric surgeons are skilled in observing and treating children in a way that makes them feel at ease and agreeable. Pediatric surgeons also employ instruments and facilities that are specifically intended for children. Most paediatric surgery offices are designed and decorated with children in mind. This comprises waiting rooms and examination rooms, which may be equipped with toys, films, and reading materials for children. This contributes to creating a secure and non-threatening environment for your child.


Fever is responsible for up to 25% of paediatric emergency department (ED) visits, and the underlying disorders can range from minor illnesses to the most serious bacterial and viral infections. In infants and children, asphyxial cardiac arrest is more common than VF cardiac arrest, therefore ventilations are crucial in scipediatric resutation. Pediatric thoracolumbar spine trauma, Child Abuse & Management, Educational & Preventive Measures, and Skull Fractures are among the topics covered in this course.


When comparing services for people with autism spectrum disorder, cerebral palsy, and Down syndrome, the support for primary care and health care finance was uniformly strong. Younger adolescents were more likely to receive Medicaid waiver assistance, although older adolescents were more likely to receive help with all other graduation criteria, such as primary and specialty care, and health.

  • Pediatric primary care in Europe: variation between countries

  • Parent and pediatrician perspectives regarding the primary care of children with autism spectrum disorders

  • The primary care pediatrician and the care of children with cleft lip and/or cleft palate

Over the pandemic, pediatric vaccine uptake dropped considerably, resulting in lower vaccination coverage that continued or worsened throughout numerous age groups during the reopening period. Additional techniques, such as immunization tracking, reminders, and memory for needed immunizations, will be necessary to boost vaccine uptake and vaccination coverage, particularly during virtual visits.

  • Pediatric Vaccination During the COVID-19 Pandemic

  • Pediatric disease burden and vaccination recommendations: understanding local differences

  • Identifying pediatric age groups for influenza vaccination using a real-time regional surveillance system

Parents are often indebted to the trained staff and cutting-edge technology that saved their children's lives. Others, on the other hand, express concern, if not outright outrage, at how they and their babies were treated in the NICU. These parents describe how difficult it is to get proper information regarding their children's illnesses, treatments, and prognoses, as well as parental exclusion from medical appointments.

  • Family centered neonatal care

  • Strategies for neonatal developmental care and family-centered neonatal care

  • Relational communications strategies to support family-centered neonatal intensive care


Treatments for children with life-threatening illnesses that aim to improve their quality of life and encourage healing and comfort are referred to as paediatric palliative care. The following are some of the services provided:

  • Getting the most out of pain and symptom management

  • Promoting communication between family and health-care providers

  • Coordinating care for inpatients, outpatients, and people at home

  • Physicians with advanced palliative medicine training


Skin-to-skin contact between parents and babies soon after delivery boosts body feeding initiation and length. We expected that giving parent’s ergonomic carriers throughout pregnancy will improve the likelihood of breastfeeding  and expressed human milk feeding in the first six months of birth.

  • The impact of infant carrying on adolescent mother–infant interactions during the still‐face task

  • Mother-to-infant transmission of hepatitis B virus infection: significance of maternal viral load and strategies for intervention

  • Malignant transformation of a desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma in an infant carrier of a nonsynonymous TP53 mutation

The number of neonatal intubations needed to gain procedural competency varies, and overall intubation competence rates are low. Although many trainees acquire skills by repetition, some may require additional teaching tactics. It's time to take a more personalised approach to evaluating trainees' progress toward intubation competency.

  • Neonatal intubation: success of paediatric trainees

  • Assessing Intubation Competence During Neonatal Fellowship Training

  • Proficiency of paediatric residents in performing neonatal endotracheal intubation

Paediatric psychology is concerned with dealing with infants who have a variety of developmental impairments and behavioural issues. The children viewed have a rich appearance of medical, developmental, and passionate/behavioural components that require extensive evaluation. Many children have poor or non-existent verbal communication skills. Other youngsters present behavioural or other (e.g., physical) difficulties.

  • Integrating Web Services/Applications to Improve Paediatric  Functionalities in Electronic Health Records

  • An architectural design framework for an Electronic Health Record system with hospice application

  • Chains of trust for on-demand requests of electronic health records

  • Health care applications: a solution based on the internet of things


Neonatology is a paediatric discipline that focuses on the medical care of new-born infants, particularly those who are ill or premature. It is mostly used in neonatal critical care units and is a hospital-based specialty. Neonatologists are medical specialists who have been specifically trained to cope with the most difficult and high-risk conditions. A neonatologist is a doctor who deals with children under the age of one.

  • Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia.

  • Feeding Disorders

  • Necrotizing Enterocolitis Research.

  • Neonatal Nutrition and Maternal Factors.


General Paediatrics is the medical branch of therapy that deals with new-borns, adolescents, and teens. A paediatrician is a professional who deals with the physical, mental, and emotional well-being of children at all stages of their development. The goal of paediatric research is to reduce new-born and neonatal mortality rates, as well as to restrict the spread of disease.

  • Adolescent Medicine.

  • Alternative Medicine.

  • ENT.

  • Immunology.

  • Medical Procedures.

  • Medico-Legal Issues.

  • Paediatric Anaesthesia.

  • Paediatric Critical Care.


Patient- and family-centred care is “an innovative approach to the planning, delivery, and assessment of health care that is based on a mutually beneficial collaboration among patients, families, and clinicians that respects the value of the patient's family.”  In the same way, family collaborations in paediatric palliative care (PPC) research provide a novel way to look at the problem.

  • Design and implementation of an online course on research methods in palliative care: lessons learned

  • Implementation science: implications for intervention research in hospice and palliative care

  • Challenging the framework for evidence in palliative care research


Indiana's administration has made lowering the state's continuously high new-born death rates a top priority. Despite improvements in overall state and Black infant mortality rates, high rates persist in Indianapolis zip codes where multigenerational poverty and underrepresented minorities are prevalent. These rates occur when high-quality health care and home-visiting services are available.

  • Closing the Black-White gap in birth outcomes: a life-course approach

  • Racial and ethnic disparities in birth outcomes: a life-course perspective

  • Beyond the HPA-axis: exploring maternal prenatal influences on birth outcomes and stress reactivity



Evidence that child maltreatment reports and emergency department visits have dropped during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has raised worries that children are being maltreated but not being brought to care. We hypothesised that it is more difficult for caregivers to cope with potentially life-threatening abuse, such as abusive head trauma (AHT).

  • Prior opportunities to identify abuse in children with abusive head trauma

  • Abusive head trauma: an epidemiological and cost analysis

  • Abusive head trauma in young children: characteristics and medical charges in a hospitalized population


During the pandemic, the number of ingestion-related calls to poison control centres and those treated at health care facilities declined. The latter is in line with a study of a drop in paediatric emergency room visits overall.  This drop could be the result of a combination of social constraints, apprehensions about obtaining medical help, and enhanced parental control.

  • A comparison of cathartics in paediatric ingestions

  • Trends in paediatric emergency department utilization after institution of coronavirus disease-19 mandatory social distancing

  • The impact of COVID-19 on a tertiary care paediatric emergency department


Paediatric nursing is the therapeutic care of new-borns and infants up to the age of pre-adolescence, primarily in an in-patient hospital or day-clinic setting. Pediatric nurses' primary responsibility is to administer direct methods and drugs to new-borns in accordance with medical care plans. Paediatric nurses are expected to respond quickly and calmly in high-stress situations.

  • Autism And Vaccination.

  • ADHD treatment and causes.

  • Social Media Impact & Eating Disorders.

  • The Antibiotic Resistance in the Preschool Kids.

  • Seizures Causes in Infants.

  • Healthy Eating & Child Obesity.

  • Adolescent Medicine Practices.

  • Speech Disorders Therapy.

During newborn resuscitation, positive pressure ventilation (PPV) is the most critical strategy. Objective for neonates receiving PPV during delivery room resuscitation, researchers compared T-piece resuscitators (TPRs), self-inflating bags (SIBs), and flow-inflating bags. Sources of information Medline, Embase, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews are just a few of the databases available. When compared to a SIB, TPR resuscitation minimises the length of PPV and the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Because of the uncertainty of the evidence, a strong recommendation cannot be given. When used with SIBs, there is inadequate information to establish the usefulness of positive end-expiratory pressure valves.

  • Comparison of devices for new-born ventilation in the delivery room

  • Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation in the preterm neonate: reducing end trauma and the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia

  • Responding to compliance changes in a lung model during manual ventilation: perhaps volume, rather than pressure, should be displayed


Context : In children, idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) is a condition with high morbidity, although the incidence and risk of relapse have not been thoroughly studied.

Objective: To calculate the overall pooled weighted incidence of INS in children and the risk of relapse.

Sources of information: Medline and Embase are two databases that can help you find information (until December 2020).

Selection for study Incidence (per 100 000 children) in all studies.

Results: A total of 73 studies were included in the analysis after screening (27 incidence, 54 relapse). The incidence was 2.92 (95 percent PI: 0.00–6.51) per 100 000 children per year, according to the overall pooled weighted estimate and accompanying prediction interval (PI). In non-Western countries, the incidence was higher (P.001). White children had a reduced incidence, but this was not statistically significant.

Conclusion: With ethnic heterogeneity, INS has a low incidence but a significant chance of relapse. Despite the fact that corticosteroids have lowered the likelihood of relapse, it remains unacceptably high, highlighting the need for other treatment modalities.

  • Nephrotic syndrome in childhood

  • Recurrence of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome after renal transplantation

  • Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in children: clinical aspects

  • Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in children


Paediatric endocrinology is a medical specialist that deals with endocrine organ problems such as abnormalities in physical and sexual development in teenagers, diabetes, and a few others. Paediatric endocrinologists will treat children based on their age, and they will care for them from childhood to late adolescence and young adulthood. 

  • Adrenal glands disorders.

  • Adrenoleukodystrophy.

  • Bone and mineral disorders.

  • Childhood obesity.

  • Diabetes, including type 1 and type 2.

  • Growth disorders.

  • Lipid disorders.


Paediatric gastroenterology and hepatology are medical specialties that deal with the research of the gastrointestinal tract, as well as the study of the liver, gallbladder, biliary tree, and pancreas, as well as the treatment of related problems. Acute diarrhoea, persistent vomiting, gastritis, and difficulties with the development of the digestive tract are the classic disorders of it. He has been linked to a number of illnesses and problems.

  • The European training syllabus in paediatric gastroenterology, hepatology, and nutrition

  • adherence monitoring and intervention in paediatric gastroenterology and hepatology

  • Gluten introduction and the risk of coeliac disease: a position paper by the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition


Paediatric oncology is a medical specialty concerned with the detection and treatment of cancer in children. Paediatric oncology is a branch of medicine that focuses on diagnosing and treating tumours in children under the age of 18. It is one of the most challenging responsibilities since, despite the lucky treatment of many children, it is an undeniable fact that, despite the lucky treatment of many youngsters, there is still a high fatality rate associated with many forms of cancers. The stage and type of cancer, as well as any side effects, the family's preferences, and hence the child's general health, all play a role in the treatment of juvenile cancer.

  • Global challenges in paediatric oncology

  • Obesity in paediatric oncology

  • Use of alternative treatment in paediatric oncology


In children and teenagers, the path from gender-expansive behaviour to gender dysphoria and gender-affirming hormonal treatment (GAHT) is poorly understood

This topic is a discussion of the factors that influenced the development of GD behaviour in children and teenagers. Only about a third of GD adolescents will earn a GDRD, while around a quarter will receive GAHT. The likelihood of receiving diagnosis and treatment increased with female sex at birth, higher age of initial GD presentation to medical care, and non-Hispanic white race and ethnicity.

  • Clinical management of gender dysphoria in children and adolescents

  • What the primary care paediatrician needs to know about gender incongruence and gender dysphoria in children and adolescents.

  • Gender dysphoria in children and adolescents

To determine the factors that influence customer satisfaction in a public paediatric inpatient service and to provide some methods for improving the consumer and customer experience. In the United States, the capacity of paediatric inpatient units is dwindling. Many children, particularly those in rural areas, are losing access to inpatient care. The number of PICU beds is growing, especially at large children's hospitals. Clinical staff communication skills, non-clinical personnel' efficiency, availability, and compassion; food quality; visit scheduling and quantity; and facility comfort are all areas that need to be addressed.

  • Customers satisfaction in paediatric inpatient services: A multiple criteria satisfaction analysis

  • Accessibility of paediatric inpatient services in Japan

  • Availability of paediatric inpatient services in the United States